Upon completion of this topic, the student will
a. State the mission of the AFP and its branch of service.
b. Enumerate the three (3) branches of service of the AFP.
c. List the two (2) components of the AFP
d. Illustrate the AFP organization.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) recognizes the Constitution of the Republic as the legitimate expression of the people’s will. It is mandated to serve and protect the people and secure the sovereignty of the state and the integrity of its national territory from internal and external threats. The AFP pledges allegiance to the Filipino people, adheres to the principle of supremacy of civilian authority over the military at all times and vows to uphold and defend the Constitution.
A. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE AFP:
The AFP identifies itself with the Filipino people’s historical struggles for freedom and justice and their vigilance against any attempt to violate the country’s integrity and sovereignty. In retrospect, it recognizes the role of our forefathers as freedom fighters and honors them for their democratic and nationalistic aspirations.
The AFP, as the embodiment of the cherished martial values and traditions of the Filipino people, traces its roots to certain historical events foremost of which is the Battle of Mactan on 27 April 1521 where Lapu-Lapu, the acknowledged father of the AFP, first demonstrated our love for freedom; the Dagohoy, Revolt in 1744, the Muslim resistance and other similar uprisings against Spanish colonialism manifesting our fight against foreign domination; the founding of the Katipunan on 07 July 1892 by Andres Bonifacio, considered as the father of the Philippine Army, who proclaimed Filipinos solidarity; the Tejeros Convention on 22 March 1897 which proclaimed officially our desire for complete independence and thereafter gave birth to the Philippine Army. Subsequently, the Philippine Navy was created on 20 May 1898.
On 12 June 1898, the Philippine Independence was declared at Kawit, Cavite, and for the first time, the Philippine Flag was unfurled by General Emilio Aguinaldo and our National Hymn was played. The Filipino-American hostilities between 1898 and 1899 further demonstrated the Filipino soldier’s best in terms of honor, valor, loyalty, duty and solidarity despite the overwhelming superiority of the enemy forces. To hasten the Philippine campaign on peace and order, the Philippine Military Academy was organized on 25 October 1898.
On 21 December 1935, the National Defense Act was enacted officially to create the AFP. The Defense of Bataan and Corregidor from the outbreak of World War II until 09 April and 06 May 1942 respectively against the Japanese invasion forces, the active Philippine guerilla movement and the successful Anti-Huk campaign also best amplified the Filipino soldiers and love of country.
The Philippine Air Force was later established on 01 July 1947. Moreover, it is also noteworthy that the AFP had participated in international peace keeping efforts as its commitment to the United Nations such as the Philippine Expeditionary Force to Korea (PEFTOK) in the early 50’s, the Philippine Air Force Contingent in Congo, Africa in the early 60’s and the Philippine Civic Action Group (PHILCAG) in South Vietnam in the late 60’s. After the EDSA event, the AFP has vigorously pursued a national reconciliation effort for peace and progress.
B. MISSION OF THE AFP
“To protect the people and secure the sovereignty of the state and the integrity of the national territory”.
C. CHAIN OF COMMAND (Commander-In-Chief, DND & AFP)
By virtue of the national Defense Act enacted officially on 21 December 1935, the Armed Forces of the Philippines was created. The President is the Commander-In-Chief of the AFP. He/ She exercises strategic direction over the personnel and the resources of the military establishments through the Secretary of the Department of National Defense, who also represents his/ her in the executive function and in the supervision of the Defense Program of the country.
The Chief of Staff, AFP executes the command functions of the President in relation to strategy, tactics and operations. He is also the immediate adviser of the Secretary of National Defense Program as prescribed by the Secretary of National Defense. The Chief of Staff has command and control over all the elements of the AFP.
D. ORGANIZATION AND CAPABILITIES OF THE AFP:
The AFP is duly created by law as an integral part of the Executive Branch of the Government. It is well-organized and disciplined body composed of a citizen armed force necessary for the defense and security of the state. It is headed by the President as the Commander-In-Chief who exercises control, supervision and authority through a Chain of Command headed by the Chief of Staff.
The organizational structure of the AFP provides for centralized direction and control of GHQ to ensure unity of efforts, and the operations of the Major Services and other separate units are decentralized to achieve maximum operational efficiency.
As provided for in the National Defense Act, as amended, the Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of the Regular Force and Reserve Force components.
The Regular Force is the permanent military organization which is maintained in time of peace and war. In time of peace, the authorized active commissioned officer and enlisted personnel strength of the Regular Force is determined every year by the Annual General and Special Appropriation Act. This strength however, does not only included those officers and EP who are permanently commissioned or serving under voluntary enlistment in the Regular Force, but also those reserve officers and enlisted reservists assigned for duty with the different services of the Regular Force.
The Reserve Force is the military organization that will come up physical existence only upon mobilization as may be called upon by the Commander-In-Chief due to state of national emergency such as war or widespread disorder. Units of the Reserve Force are “paper” organizations which come to being to augment the Regular Force confronting the threat to the Nation. The Reserve Force organization includes the commissioned Reserved Officers and all citizen who have completed the prescribed trainee instruction as provided by the National Defense Act and who are assigned as reservists to the organization of the Reserve Force.
For operational efficiency and effectiveness, the AFP is presently composed of three (3) Major Service Commands namely:
q Philippine Army (PA) - conducts ground combat operations;
q Philippine Air Force (PAF) - secures the Philippine air space; and
q Philippine Navy (PN) - secures the Philippine territorial waters
Each service command considers the other services as brothers-in-arms and members of one big family. All AFP services maintain harmonious and mutually supportive relationship with each other and in other government agencies.
F. MAJOR SERVICES RESCOMs AND AFPRESCOM
Prior to the enactment of the AFP Reservist Act (Republic Act Number 7077) on 27 June 1991, reserve force development was already an existing phenomenon in the AFP as far back as 1939 when the then General of the Army, Douglas McArthur was commissioned to the Commonwealth of the Philippines to organize its citizen army. The surfacing of a new organization that would coordinate and integrate the efforts of the pioneering citizen’s army forces was met with resistance for decades.
The AFP Reservist Act or RA Nr. 7077 provided for the reorganization of the AFP Reserve Force into four (4) major components, namely: the Army Reserve, the Navy Reserve, the Air Force Reserve, and the AFP-Wide technical and Affiliated Reserve Command within one year after its enactment. The urgency of this mandate pushed General Headquarters, AFP to activate the AFP Reserve Command (AFPRESCOM) from the personnel and facilities of the defunct Metropolitan Citizen Military Training Command (MCMTC) on 01 April 1993.
1. AFPRESCOM - organized as an AFP-wide support and separate unit on 01 April 1993 pursuant to General Order No. 22 GHQ, AFP dated 02 March 1993 and Republic Act No. 7077, otherwise known as the Armed Forces of the Philippines Reservist Act. AFPRESCOM is mandated to provide direction for the development, administration, organization, training, maintenance and utilization of the Citizen Armed Forces as a base for the rapid expansion of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in times of emergency. In the performance of its functions, the Command is organized into two (2) major operational units, namely; the Affiliated Reserve Group (ARG) and the Technical Service Reserve Group (TSRG) which are tasked to train and develop affiliated reservists and technical service reservists, respectively. The training of these reservists is directly under the supervision and control of the Reservists Training Center (RTC).
2. Army Reserve Command (ARESCOM) - premised on a dedication to service, faced with the challenge of being in a constant state of readiness and responsiveness if it is to back up the regular army. Its enduring values of professionalism, integrity and responsibility to the nation through selfless service must be kept alive to meet the demands of the time.
3. Naval Reserve Command (NAVRESCOM) - tasked to oversee and administer all naval reservists in our country, in order to provide the navy not only a base for expansion in the event of war, invasion, rebellion, or disaster and calamity relief but also to assist in socio-economic development of the country. NAVRESCOM has managed to activate eight (8) Naval Reserve centers throughout the country namely;
a. Naval Reserve Center Northern Luzon (NRCNL) - situated at Bunuan Gueset, Dagupan City and covers all areas north of NRNCR to Batanes Island.
b. Naval Reserve Center National Capital Region (NRCNCR) - situated at Intramuros, Manila and covers all areas of National Capital Region.
c. Naval Reserve Center Southern Luzon (NRCSL) - situated at Rawis, Legaspi City and covers areas from Batangas, Mindoro, Romblon and entire Bicol Region
d. Naval Reserve Center West (NRCW) - Puerto Princesa, Palawan
e. Naval Reserve Center Eastern Visayas (NRCEV) - situated at Cebu City and covers the entire Visayas, Leyte. Samar.
f. Naval Reserve Center Western Visayas (NRCWV) - situated at Iloilo and covers the whole western Visayas to include Panay and Negros.
g. Naval Reserve Center Western Mindanao (NRCWM) - situated at Zamboanga City and covers areas from Cotabato, Zamboanga, Basilan, Jolo and Tawi-tawi.
h. Naval Reserve Center Eastern Mindanao (NRCEM) - situated at Davao City and covers entire Davao to Gen Santos City.
These Centers served as its operating units in far flung areas to ensure that its task of reaching those vast naval reserve manpower be carried with ease and achieve desired goals.
4. Air Force Reserve Command (AFRESCOM) - is actively involved in the administration and utilization of the air reservist responding and acting quickly to rescue calls whenever and wherever disaster occurs.
Upon completion of this lesson, the student will:
a. Explain the importance of military courtesy and discipline in the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
b. Define military courtesy and discipline.
c. Enumerate the factors that create a climate of discipline.
d. State when and how to salute, who are entitled to a salute, and when not to salute.
e. Identify the different ranks and insignias used in the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
Many people think that discipline is nothing more than the enforcement of regulations and the corresponding punishment when one violates them. Others associate discipline with the state of subservience where subordinates blindly follow the orders of their superiors out of habit or fear. All of these are not true. As a matter of fact, discipline is that condition wherein men work and get well together for the accomplishment of a group mission. It is that climate of orderliness where individuals execute commands and follow regulations exactly as a result of intelligent and reasoned obedience.
Just like in the civilian world, the observance of military courtesy serves to smoothen the personal relationship and among men in the profession of arms and strengthen the bond between them. They must be thoroughly familiar with the different forms of military courtesy and must be able to confidently practice them.
A. Definition of Terms:
1. Military Courtesy - It is the written, officially prescribed code of deportment for members of the military establishments. In civilian life, courtesy is an expression of consideration for others. This implies the use of good manners and polished conduct in dealing with other people.
2. Military Discipline - This term maybe defined as the willingness to accept with conviction and without reservation the necessity for a common law that rules and coordinates the effort of a group. Obvious, a rather severe but basic type of discipline is suggested by this definition.
3. Morale - The term maybe defined as the mental state and spirit of an individual or unit.
B. Necessity for Discipline:
Military discipline is necessary to ensure orderly and effective group action, commonly known as teamwork. Teamwork is particularly important in military operations where its presence or lack of it may very well spell the difference between victory or defeat.
With discipline, a soldier learns a sense of obligation to himself and to his comrades; to his commander and the entire organizations. He also realizes that he is a member of a team, organized, trained and equipped for the purpose of engaging and defeating the enemies of our country. The ultimate objective of military discipline therefore is unit efficiency in battle – to ensure that a unit performs its role correctly; that it reaches its objectives, accomplishes its assigned mission and helps other units to accomplish their mission.
C. Creating a Climate of Discipline:
We find ready application of discipline in all aspects of military life. We often hear of “fire discipline”, “water discipline”, and “supply discipline”. Favorable climate of discipline may be best created in unit by a leader thru the following:
1. Training - a soldier learns to work with other soldiers; learn to unify their actions into a single effort in order to accomplish the group mission and also develops the habit of prompt obedience to all orders.
2. Judicious Use of Punishment and Reward - the best kind of discipline is that which exacts obedience by appealing to reason and that which makes use of the so called “positive incentives” or reward.
3. Instilling a Sense of Confidence and Responsibility - a confident and responsible soldier realizes that he has an obligation not only to himself but to the other soldier in the organization, and that violation of the rules of discipline will not only reflect on him as an individual but will also discredit, if not cause irreparable damage to his unit.
D. Military Courtesy in the Service:
Military Courtesy are acts of politeness, civility and respect that personnel in the military organization accord to one another. Just like in the civilian world, military courtesy serves to smooth the personal relationship among men in the profession of arms. The following are some of the significant forms of courtesy in the AFP:
1. Salute – is the most important and most common form of all military courtesies. Men of arms have used some form of military salute as an exchange of greeting since the earliest times. In the Navy, saluting with the left hand is allowed when the right hand is occupied with something or not available for the execution of the same.
1.1 Who are entitled to the Salute:
a. Commissioned Officers (both male and female) of the AFP, the National Flag and National Anthem.
b. High ranking civilian officials or foreign dignitaries during military honors rendered for them.
c. Officers of the Coast Guard and Geodetic Survey and the Public Service when they are serving with the AFP.
1.2 When to Salute:
a. Aboard ship. When boarding a navy ship where the National Flag is flying, all persons in the naval service step upon reaching the upper platform of the accommodation ladder or shipboard end of the prow, face the national flag , and salute. After this, salute the Officer of the Deck (OOD). When leaving the ship, salute first the OOD and then the national flag. All officers, captains of ships, and officers senior to themselves salutes each other on every occasion of meeting, passing near, or when being addressed.
b. In Boats.
1) Men seated in boats where there are no officer, petty officer or acting petty officer in charge, rises and salute all officers passing near. When there is an officer, petty officer or acting petty officers in charge of the boat, he alone renders the salute.
2) Officers seated in boats rise in rendering and returning salutes when a senior enters or leaves the boat or when acknowledging a gun salute.
3) Coxswain in charge of boats rise and salute all officers entering or leaving the boat. All members of the crew when the boat is not underway and not carrying an officer aboard stand and salute when an officer comes alongside, leaves the side, or passes near them. If the boat awning are spread, the men sit at attention and render the hand salute without rising.
4) When Ashore. Same general rules of saluting apply as on board navy ship. Salute the Captain and all officers senior to you on all occasions salute other officers on first meeting during the day. The salute also rendered indoors during ceremonies honoring the flag and in court martial.
5) In a group. If officers and enlisted men are standing together not in formation, and a senior approaches, the first to perceive him shouts “ATTENTION” and all faces him and salute. When in formation, cautions his unit to attention before executing the appropriate salute.
6) Accompanying women. When escorting women both officers and men will render the customary salute. When seated with women, junior officers if covered rise and salute when senior officers approach.
7) Overtaking and Accompanying a Senior
a) Overtake and pass senior officer only upon his permission. When it become necessary to walk past a senior officer, pass his left side, and salute when you are abreast and ask, “BY YOUR LEAVE SIR?” When the officer returns the salute you can continue pass him.
b) When in company with a senior, you always walk on his left or put him on your right. This also applies aboard any vehicle.
8) Reporting. When reporting on deck or outdoors ashore, one is covered and salute accordingly. When reporting in an officer, he uncovers upon approaching the senior, salute and states his business.
9) Seated. An enlisted man being seated and without particular occupation rises upon the approach of an officer, faces him and salutes, if covered. If both remain in the same vicinity, the salute need not be repeated.
10) Seniority unknown. Officers will know the relative seniority of those with whom they are in frequent contact. The safest way and the best rule is to salute when in doubt.
11) Sentries. Sentries at gangway salute all officers going or coming over the side and when passing or being passed by officers close aboard in boats.
1.3 How to Salute:
a. When not walking render the salute in the position of a soldier at attention. When walking, continue and render the salute within a recognizable distance (5 paces).
b. Hand salute is rendered smartly and done in the following manner. The forearm should be inclined 45 degrees. The tip of the fore finger should be slightly touching above the eyebrow of the right eye, the thumb and fingers must be extended and joined. The upper arm is parallel to the deck with elbow forward. Hand and wrist in the straight line. The palm is slightly inward.
c. The salute is made whether headgear is worn or not.
d. Rifle salutes are used in place of the hand salute when carrying a rifle. They are used when executing present arms, when you give rifle salute at order arms and rifle salute at shoulder arms.
1.4 When NOT to Salute
a. When troops are at work.
b. Indoors, except when reporting to an officer
c. When carrying articles with both hands, or being so occupied as to make saluting impracticable
d. When serving as a military prisoner
C. Identification of ranks, Insignias in the AFP
All officers in the AFP are commissioned into the service and are given ranks by the President of the Republic of the Philippines. They hold such rank for a certain time in grade until they are promoted to the next higher grade.
Enlisted personnel (EP) are likewise given ranks by their respective services as well as rates and ratings depending on the level of their occupational field on a certain job classification. For the PN, an EP is given a promotional examination (PROMEX) before he/she can be promoted to the next higher grade.
PN Rank Classification
The ranks, rates and ratings of officers and enlisted personnel in the Philippine Navy differ in name from that of the other branches of service of the AFP including the Philippine Marines. They are almost a universal tradition for all navies of the world and the difference lies only on the various uniform insignias, badges, markings and devices.
Rating - is the term used in the Navy to identify an occupational specialty that is based on the aptitude, training, experience, knowledge and skills of an individual. Examples of ratings are: Quartermaster (QM), Boatswain mate (BM), Electronic Technician (ET), Engineman (EN), Damage Control man (DC), etc.
Rate - is the term used to identify the level of achievement and expertise within the individual's rating. Rate may also be called pay grade within a rating. a level of aptitude, training, experience, knowledge, skill and responsibility within the rating of occupation.
Rank - is the combined rate and rating of the individual. Examples of enlisted ranks are: Radioman, Third Class (RM3), Electrician's Mate, First Class (EM1), Seaman First, Hospital Corpsman (S1HM), Gunner's Mate Chief (GMC), etc.
Unrated or non-rated/ unclassified - a term used to identify an individual who has not yet been classified for a particular rating. His rank would carry an initial (UN). Examples are: ASN(UN), SN1(UN), PO3(UN), etc.
Striker - a term that applies to an individual in the pay grade E-1 to E-3.
Petty Officer - a term that applies to an individual in the pay grade E-4 to E-7.
Naval Enlisted Job Classification (NEJC) -a system of classifying jobs of enlisted personnel that identifies and describes their special and technical knowledge and skills including the duties and responsibilities to be undertaken by each within the various ratings.
It determines where an individual will work and what an individual will do.
Officers are graded according to rank, Enlisted Personnel according to pay grades, and are also spoken as having rates.
Rating - a rating pertains to occupation in the navy which requires basically related aptitudes, training, experienced, knowledge and skills. Each rating has its own special symbol worn by all men properly qualified.